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  Refractive Errors


Vison irregularities may be caused by refractive disorders (concerned with the shape of the eye) or non-refractive disorders (caused by eye diseases such as glaucoma or cataract). Laser Vison Correction (“LVC”) surgery is used to treat refractive disorders. The Pulzar system supports surgeons treating refractive disorders.

In a properly functioning eye, the cornea directly focuses light rays on the light sensitive retina at the back of the eye, providing sharp, clear vision. If the cornea is improperly curved it will be unable to properly focus images on the retina, causing blurring of vision. Common refractive disorders are outlined below. The Pulzar system can be used to be treat myopia, hyperopia and regular / irregular astigmatism.

  Thre Refractive Errors are -  
  Myopia (short sightedness) occurs when the axial length of the eye is too long or the cornea is curved too steeply. The images focus in the front of the retina causing distant objects to appear blurry.


Hyperopia (far sightedness) occurs when the eye is too short or the cornea is too flat. The images focus beyond the retina and cause close objects to appear blurry.
  Astigmatism occurs when the cornea is not round like a basketball, but curved more like a football. The images focus at the different planes and objects to appear blurry both at the distance and near. Often people have astigmatism as well as myopia or hyperopia.
  Presbyopia begins to occur in most people around age 40 when the lens of the eye begins to lose process of the eye which makes it difficult to focus on the near objects and it usually is corrected with bifocals or reading glasses.  
  Correction of Refraction  

Deficiency in the vision can be corrected by spectacles or contact lenses. Many jobs and careers demand uncorrected normal vision. Youngsters are unable to take up many careers such as Cine, TV Artist, Models, Military Services, Police, Fire Fighters, Railways, Drivers, Navy, Air Force, Industrial Employment, Sales Careers, Drama, Theaters, Sports activities, Swimming, Etc. Young ladies face severe problems in getting marriage proposals.

To overcome these deficiencies glasses were invented in 13th century. Today contact lenses are very popular but they can only hide the ugly glasses but can not cure the problem. In the late 1970 Dr. Fyderov from USSR invented a surgical procedure known as Radial Keratotomy (RK) to correct low to moderate degree of myopia. RK became very popular worldwide. During the course of time many other techniques evolved in refractive surgery. Recently the use of Lasers to rectify abnormality of the shape of cornea and to correct vision have become tremendously popular. The refractive surgery today has scaled to the heights of safety, precision and accuracy and has become the fastest developing science in the world of Opthalmlogy.